A rainwater harvesting system has several components which perform different tasks ranging from capturing rainwater to providing clean water for home use. Generally, an overhead or underground tank is used for private rainwater harvesting while the villages also have large ponds to store water.
Rainwater harvesting in cities requires different methods and special components are used to save on the area while providing quality rainwater harvesting. There are several different ways of managing the components for the rainwater harvesting setup. These tips will help you with each component for better results.
Collection of rainwater
There are different ways of collecting water, including rood, groundwater, and a combination of both. The main structural components of this section are the roof water collection system, storage tank, and recharge pit. The cost of the system will depend on the cost of each component. With the water cleaning system, nearly 80% of clean water can be collected. The water collecting roof either needs to be a slope for wash away the first water from the rain to collect only clean water or if it is a flat terrace it should not be allowed for roaming and will need regular cleaning.
The storage tank can be above the ground or underground or half above and half underground based on one’s choice and the availability of the land. Storage tanks can be of syntax, Ferro-cement, or even concrete. For small storages around 20,000L, a concrete tank will be an ideal choice. Ferro-cement tanks will cost the least. If the tank water is used for drinking purpose, it should have a filter system at the entry point as well as the extraction point. A draining system should also be installed for cleaning the tank. A T-joint valve can be used to ease the draining of unclean water and receiving the clean water. An RWH will be able to provide the right choice of components based on the requirements and availability of space.
Artificial groundwater recharged is necessary when there is an excess source of water at the site, or the source water is compatible with groundwater. Having an RWH structure is safe and useful at a place where the water can be stored for direct use and to also recharge groundwater. It helps in maintaining the quality of overall water that is used. An average recharge structure size is 1-2 cubic meter which is filled with graded filter materials such as cobbles, gravel, pebbles, and sand in different layers. It helps in providing silt free water for quality usage. It is essential to choose the right filter-elements. If the filters are too small, they can block the water supply and slow down the process. However, if the filters are too big, the filtering will be faster, but it will not be able to remove all the suspended matters.